1. G-d, L-rd, A--noy, Shad--i, Elokim, Kel:
Names of the Creator. Because of their sacredness, they are not spelled out.
2. Hebrew Bible:
The Jewish Holy Scriptures, (so called the Old Testament).
3. Israel / Children of Israel:
The Jewish people, who are the descendants of Israel (Jacob), the grandson of Abraham. Israel and Jacob are synonymous, as seen in Genesis 32:29: And [the angel] said: "Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, for you have striven with G-d and with men and have prevailed."
The Jewish people, and the Land of Israel were divided into two monarchies:
4. The Kingdom of Judah:
Ruled by the House of David, this kingdom occupied the Southern sector of the country, and consisted of the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin. When the First Temple was destroyed, they were exiled to Babylon (II Kings 25:11). They returned 70 years later (Ezra 2:64), and remained in Israel until the Romans conquered Jerusalem and exiled them among the nations in 70 C.E.
5. The Kingdom of Israel:
This kingdom consisted of Ten Tribes - Reuben, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Manasseh, and Ephraim. They occupied the Northern region of the country until they were exiled to Assyria (II Kings 15:29). Who and where they are today is unknown.
The first century Jewish historian, and army general who defected to the Roman army during its invasion of Jerusalem. He wrote a famous history of the Jews.
7. Torah / Written Torah / Law:
The First Five Books of the Hebrew Bible - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
8. Oral Tradition:
The unwritten meanings of letters, words and verses in the Hebrew Bible. Also, the laws and customs taught to Moses on Mount Sinai, and transmitted orally throughout the generations.
A compilation and detailed discussion of the Oral Tradition. It could no longer remain oral once the Jews were dispersed throughout the world.
The reader is advised not to pronounce the names Krishna, Buddha and Jesus:
...make no mention of the name of other gods, nor let it be heard out of your mouth.