. Their 70 Weeks Of Daniel Exposed - Source Book

Their 70 Weeks Of Daniel Exposed

THE SEVENTY WEEKS OF YEARS PROPHECY

SECTION 1    A Traditional Jewish Translation, Interpretation & Calculation of DANIEL 9:24-27

24. "Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city to finish the transgression, to end sin, to atone for iniquity, to bring in eternal righteousness, to seal vision and prophet and to anoint a Holy of Holies.

25. Know therefore and understand that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem until [mashiach] an anointed one, a prince, will be 7 weeks; and for 62 weeks it will be rebuilt, street and moat, even in troublous times.

26. And after the 62 weeks will [mashiach] an anointed one be cut off and have nothing, and the people of a prince who will come will destroy the city and the Sanctuary, and its end will be with a flood. Until the end of a war desolations are decreed.

27. And he will make a covenant with many for 1 week, and in the middle of the week he will put an end to sacrifice and offering;..."

NOTE: Did Year One begin during the initial Five Days of Creation, on the Sixth Day when Adam was formed, or one year later? This unknown is why our traditional dates from Creation, & their corresponding B.C.E. years are accurate within two years. The latter are in: "The 165 year discrepancy" below.

To understand a passage one must always study it in context. At the beginning of Daniel 9 we find:

Daniel 9:2

"In the first year of Darius' reign I, Daniel, considered in the Books the number of years about which the word of the
L-rd came to Jeremiah the Prophet which must pass before the end of the desolation of Jerusalem, namely 70 years."

This is referring to:

Jeremiah 29:10

"When 70 years are finished for Babylon, I will remember you, and fulfill for you My promise to bring you back to this place."

These 70 years of desolation began when Jerusalem was destroyed, and Jews were deported to Babylon (2 Kings 25:8-12). It ended with the building of the Second Temple (Ezra 6:15).

In Daniel 9:3-20, Daniel prayed for the Jewish people, praised G-d, implored Him to end the exile, and to rebuild the Temple and Jerusalem.
In answer to his prayers, the angel Gabriel revealed to Daniel that 420 years were being added to the 70 years. We were warned that this could happen:
Leviticus 26:18 "If after all this you will not obey Me, I will punish you seven times more for your sins."
7 x 70 years = 420 + 70 = 490 years. It was a complete 490 year punishment.

Daniel 9:24

Seventy weeks have been decreed for your people and your holy city,

1 day = 1 year.......1 week = 7 years.......70 weeks = 490 years.
We learn this formular from the Torah:

Leviticus 25:8

"And you will number 7 Sabbaths of years, 7 x 7 years, and there will be to you the time of 7 Sabbaths of years, even 49 years."
Sabbath (Saturday) ends our week.......1 Sabbath = 1 week of 7 years.......7 Sabbaths = 49 years.

Daniel was told details of what would transpire during the 490 years starting from the first desolation of Jerusalem. That occurred in our Biblical calendar year 3338 or 3,338 years from Year One. (see Appendix)

The 490 years ended at the second desolation of Jerusalem.
Hence, the calculation for Daniel 9:24-27 is 3338 + 490 = 3828.
There were 3,828 years from Year One until the Roman war against Jerusalem ended.

Daniel 9:24

to finish the transgression, to end sin, to atone for iniquity, and to bring in eternal righteousness,

At the end of this full 490 year period the Messiah would appear, and these Messianic promises would be fulfilled. OR Jerusalem would again be destroyed, and we would be exiled (9:26). Not both. Not earlier.

Daniel 9:24

and to seal vision and prophet,

During this 490 year period, vision and prophecy ceased with the Prophet Malachi.

Daniel 9:24

and to anoint a Holy of Holies [Kodesh Kodashim].

The rebuilt and functioning Second Temple (Ezekiel 45:3).

Daniel 9:25

from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem

This is referring to the word of Jeremiah at the first desolation of Jerusalem. Thus, from the view of Daniel, this command was a past declaration:

Jeremiah 30:18

"Thus says the L-rd: Behold, I will restore the captivity of Jacob's tents, and have compassion on his dwellings, and the city will be rebuilt upon its mound, and the Palace shall stand on its proper place."

The Hebrew debar which linked Daniel 9:2, 9:25 and Ezra 1:1 primarily means word.
The Hebrew for decree in the Book of Ezra is t'aim (Ezra 7:13).
Letters (iggerot) were issued authorizing Nehemiah's mission (Nehemiah 2:9).

To build (banah). Its Hebrew root letters are beit nun hei.
1 Kings 5:5 "Behold, I plan to build a house"

To restore or To bring back (shuv). Its Hebrew root letters are shin vav veit.
Jeremiah 30:3 "when I will restore from captivity My people Israel and Judah. I will bring them back to the land."

Daniel 9:25

until [mashiach] an anointed one, a prince, will be 7 weeks;

Seven weeks of years after the destruction of the First Temple, Cyrus the first [mashiach] "anointed one" appeared as Isaiah the Prophet had foretold some 200 years earlier:

Isaiah 45:1, 13

"Thus says the L-rd to His anointed, to Cyrus...He will build My city and set My exiles free, neither for price nor for reward, says the L-rd of hosts."

And so it was, Cyrus fulfilled the word of G-d through His Prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah:

Ezra 1:1, 3

"Now in the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, in order that the word of the L-rd by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the L-rd stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia to make a proclamation...Whoever there is among you of all His people his G-d be with him, let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the House of the
L-rd, the G-d of Israel. He is the G-d Who is in Jerusalem."

Cyrus informed his governors, ruling in Syria, the details of his decree:
"I have given leave to as many of the Jews that dwell in my country as please to return to their own country, and to rebuild their city, and the Temple of G-d in Jerusalem. On the same place where it was before" (Josephus, Antiquities, Book 11, Chapter 1, Section 3).

NOTE: The Christian Schools of thought claim that the 490 years did not begin with the decree of Cyrus because Ezra 1:3 does not make reference to Jerusalem. But the declarations of Jeremiah, Isaiah and Cyrus himself confirmed that the city was included in the reconstruction project.

Daniel 9:25

and for 62 weeks it will be rebuilt, street and moat, even in troublous times.

Jerusalem was rebuilt but it was a time of oppression under our Persian, Greek and Roman rulers. The opposition began when Zerubbabel, and the group of returnees started the construction work in Jerusalem (Ezra 4). That was two years after Cyrus' decree took effect (Ezra 3:8). It continued "...all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, until the reign of Darius king of Persia" (Ezra 4:5).

Daniel 9:26

And after the 62 weeks will [mashiach] an anointed one be cut off and have nothing,

This second [mashiach] "anointed one" was King Agrippa II of Judea. During the war in 66 C.E. the Jews dethroned, and expelled him from Jerusalem. He, then deserted to the Roman side, and did not regain his royal status (Agrippa II New World encyclopedia.org).

Daniel 9:26

and the people of a prince who will come will destroy the city and the Sanctuary,

Jerusalem and the Second Temple were destroyed by the Roman army originally led by General Vespasian. When he became the Roman emperor, his son General Titus, the new crown prince took over the command (Titus Britannica.com). Thus, he is this prince.

Daniel 9:26

and its end will be with a flood. Until the end of a war desolations are decreed.

Complete destruction is so described elsewhere:

Nahum 1:8

"But with an overrunning flood, He will make a full end of its place."

Daniel 9:27

And he will make a covenant with many for 1 week; and in the middle of the week he will put an end to sacrifice and offering;

Vespasian made a peace agreement with the Jewish leaders. However, he broke this covenant after the first half week (3.5 years) and prohibited sacrifices (Major Jewish commentators).

*************** *************** *************** ***************

SECTION 2

A Refutation of Christian Translation, Interpretations & Calculations of DANIEL 9:24-27

THEIR TRANSLATION

DANIEL  9:24-27

24. "Seventy weeks are determined for your people and for your holy city, to finish the transgression, to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy.

25. Know therefore and understand that from the going forth of the command to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be 7 weeks, and 60 and 2 weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

26. And after 60 and 2 weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself; and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.

27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for 1 week; and in the middle of the week he shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering;..."

a. The above is the present day Kings James Version. Remarkably, their original 1611 C.E. edition punctuated 9:25 significantly different:

"unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be 7 weeks; and 60 and 2 weeks, the street shall be built again,"

It correctly has a semicolon stop and separation after 7 weeks, indicating two mashiachs (9:25/26). It was changed to a comma in their 1769 edition. We were in agreement for 158 years!

b. This change enables Christians to say that the one mashiach (Jesus) came after 69 weeks, written as 7 and 62 (9:25).
But "weeks" after both 7 and 62 show different intervals of time.

c. In the Hebrew, "the" appears before the second 62 weeks: "And after the 62 weeks shall..." (9:26). They exclude it to make it less obvious that the 62 weeks are a distinct segment of time separating the two mashiachs.
Thus, 7 and 62 appear as an uninterrupted 69 weeks of 7 years: 69 x 7 = 483 years. This is the Christian timeframe from Artaxerxes' decree in Ezra 7:1 until Jesus' baptism. OR his decree in Nehemiah 2:1 until Palm Sunday.

d. Conversely, "the" before "mashiach" and before "Prince" do not exist (9:25). They were added to give the impression that the one and distinct Redeemer is being referred to.
Compare this verse with Leviticus 4:5 in Hebrew. There the letter hey (the) which is pronounced ha does appear twice: ha-kohen ha-mashiach. Literally: "The Priest, the anointed one."

e. The Hebrew root letters: mem-shin-yud-chet (mashiach) appear in the Hebrew Bible 39 times. Except in Daniel 9:25/26, the KJV correctly translates it as "anointed" or "anointed one".

f. "be cut off" "But the person who does anything defiantly...will be cut off from his people. Because he has despised the word of the L-rd, and has broken His command" (Numbers 15:30-31).
Equating being cut off with the crucifixion is wrong (Kareth en.Wikipedia.org).

g. "but not for himself" is mis-translation. "ve'ein" means - and have nothing.
Proverbs 13:7 "There is one who pretends to be rich and has nothing".

h. It is not known when Jerusalem was restored & rebuilt (9:25). The wall was completed in 52 days (Nehemiah 6:15). The secular chronology has the Temple rebuilt in 516 B.C.E. Seventy years after it was destroyed.

THE 165 YEAR DISCREPANCY

From the Destruction of the First Temple to the Destruction of the Second Temple

Rabbinic Chronology 421 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.      Secular Chronology 586 B.C.E. - 70 C.E.

The B.C.E. dates that correspond with our Rabbinic chronology starting from Year One were:
The First Temple destroyed in 421,  Cyrus' decree in 369,  Zerubbabel went to Jerusalem in 369,  Second Temple completed in 351,  Artaxerxes' decree to Ezra in 350,  Artaxerxes' decree to Nehemiah in 337. The Second Temple destroyed in 70 C.E.
421 - 369 B.C.E. ...... 52 years. First 7 weeks of years.
421 - 351 B.C.E. ...... 70 year Babylonian exile.
351 -- 70 C.E. ....... 420 years Second Temple stood.
421 -- 70 C.E. ....... 490 years of Daniel 9:24-27.

NOTE: In accordance with mainstream Christian understanding, the ground rules for this disputation are:
1. Only the secular chronology is quoted from here on.
2. Artaxerxes is Artaxerxes I Longimanus (465-424 B.C.E. OR 464-423 B.C.E.).
Why? The 490 years end in Jesus' lifetime only if they began from Longimanus!
Its not that simple. This is an extremely complex issue. Artaxerxes means "Great King, the name or title of several kings of Persia" (ATS biblehub.com). Scholars disagree who "Artaxerxes" was in Ezra 4:7; 7:1; & Nehemiah 2:1.

Our later and shorter timeline for this period in which we were active participants concurs with:
Daniel 11:2 "Behold, yet three kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth..."
Contrary to this declaration, the secular chronology lists 14 Persian kings. This historical blunder was the result of its extended 207 year Persian period. From it arose serious chronological disorders:

1. Many believe Artaxerxes Longimanus stopped the construction work in Jerusalem (Ezra 4:21-24). But his reign began in 465 or 464 B.C.E. and this decree continued "until the 2nd year of the reign of Darius king of Persia" (Ezra 4:24). That year was 520 B.C.E., 55 years earlier.
Josephus, 1st century historian, wrote that this Artaxerxes was Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus (Antiquities, Book 11, Chapter 2, Section 1-2). He reigned from 530-522 B.C.E. The Scotfield Reference Bible agrees with this identification.

2. Darius completed the Second Temple in 516 B.C.E. (Ezra 6:15). In 458 or 457 B.C.E., in the 7th year of Artaxerxes, Ezra was allowed to return to Jerusalem (Ezra 7:1). This 58 or 59 year separation contradicts Scripture, which has a short time between these events: Ezra 7:1, 6
"Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia,...Ezra went up from Babylon;" (Compare Esther 3:1)
Futhermore, Ezra was the son of Seraiah (Ezra 7:1), the last High Priest. He was killed before the First Temple was destroyed in 586 B.C.E. (2 Kings 25:18-21). Therefore, Ezra was above 128 years old in the 7th year of Artaxerxes
(586-458 B.C.E.)! Compare Ezra 7:1-2 with I Chronicles 6:11-14.

If Darius was the king in Ezra 7-10 & Nehemiah, then he was being addressed as Artaxerxes. And it was only 13 months after the Temple was rebuilt when Darius sent Ezra "to beautify the House of the L-rd in Jerusalem" (Ezra 7:27).
The Temple was rebuilt on Adar 3rd, the 12th month. The 6th year of Darius (Ezra 6:15).
Passover was observed on Nisan 14th, the 1st month. The 6th year of Darius (Ezra 6:19).
Ezra went to Jerusalem on Nisan 1st, the 1st month. The 7th year of Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:8-9).
NOTE: Our New Year begins in Tishrei, the 7th month. The timeline was Adar 3rd, Nisan 14th, Tishrei 1st, Nisan 1st.

Darius' reign of 36 years (522-486 B.C.E.) accommodated the last dated event in the Book of Nehemiah:
Nehemiah 13:6 "in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes king of Babylon, I went to the king,"

3. Nehemiah 12:1-6 lists the 22 heads of the Priests "who ascended with Zerubbabel" in 538 B.C.E. But 93 or 94 years later, at least 13 of them, their names listed in the same order, signed a covenant with Nehemiah in 445 or 444 B.C.E. (Nehemiah 10:2-9). They were above 120 years old!
Those who signed were Seraiah,  Jeremiah,  Amariah,  Hattush,  Shebaniah,  Malluch,  Meremoth,  Ginnethon,  Abijah,  Mijamin,  Maaziah,  Biglah,  Shemaiah. If Darius was the king, they signed 36 years later (538-502 B.C.E.).
Nehemiah, the son of Hachaliah was the same man in Nehemiah 10:2 and 1:1.

Floyd Nolen Jones Th.D, Ph.D   The Chronology of the Old Testament p. 241, 23rd Edition:
"Not having noticed the problem inherent in comparing these two registers in relation to the dates they have assigned to them, nearly all scholars have failed to fathom the true extent and depth of the perplexity."
"Unless a solution is found, the time disparity between the Nehemiah 10 and 12 lists invalidates not only Sir Robert Anderson's solution...but all other accepted scenarios in use today as well."
Anderson founded a calculation for Artaxerxes' 20th year decree. (see below)

Ezra 6:14: The Jews rebuilt the Temple according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius "and" Artaxerxes.
The Hebrew letter "vav" primarily means "and". However, other words are often more accurate, such as: even, now.
I Samuel 28:3 "in Ramah, even in his own city." 98% of translations have even, or do not translate the vav.
"Now after these things," (Ezra 7:1 above). 95% of translations have Now (biblehub.com).

Cyrus decreed that the Temple be rebuilt in 538 B.C.E. (Ezra 1:3-4). Darius decreed that the work be restarted in 520 B.C.E. (Ezra 6:7). Between their decrees, the 1st Artaxerxes stopped the building (Ezra 4:21-24). So the verse is not speaking about him. Nor is it referring to the 2nd (Ezra 7-10) or 3rd Artaxerxes (Nehemiah). They ruled decades after the Second Temple was completed.

ARTAXERXES' DECREES

a. Why was the calculation for Daniel 9:25-26 not quoted in the New Testament? And why was it not until 150 years after the crucifixion that the first authority to write a Christian interpretation on Daniel 9 was Irenaeus in 180 C.E. (Against Heresies)? His followers failed to formulate a united belief system. They broke up into 4 rival factions.

The FIRST SCHOOL declares: "from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem" (9:25) was referring to Artaxerxes' 7th year decree in 458 OR 457 B.C.E. (Ezra 7), and that the 490 year prophecy began from then.
The SECOND SCHOOL starts it from Artaxerxes' 20th year decree in 445 OR 444 B.C.E. (Nehemiah 2).

His decrees can not be dated because it is not known if his reign began in 465 OR 464 B.C.E. There is no extant record when Xerxes, the previous king was killed (Artaxerxes 1 Encyclopedia Iranicaonline. org).
If we don't know when their 70 weeks began, we don't know when they ended.

b. Both Schools claim that Jerusalem was in rubble from 586 B.C.E. until their decree was issued.
1. That the Temple was rebuilt and remained operational in such surreal conditions is obsurd!
2. Cyrus informed his governors of his decree to rebuild Jerusalem (see Section 1).
3. Zerubbabel's group were rebuilding "the rebellious and bad city," in 536 B.C.E. (Ezra 4:12).

ARTAXERXES' 7th YEAR DECREE.....EZRA 7

Nisan  (March / April) ***** Av  (July / August) ***** Tishrei  (September / October)
In the Hebrew Bible, the 1st month is always Nisan:
Esther 3:7 "the 1st month which is the month Nisan."
Numbers 28:16 "And in the 1st month, on the 14th day of the month is the L-rd's Passover." It is in Nisan.
NOTE: Nisan is our 1st calendar month. But Tishrei, the 7th month, begins our New Year (Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1:1).

Ezra 7:1, 6 "Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia,...the king granted him all he requested."
This decree permitted Ezra's return to Jerusalem. It is not stated when it took effect.

But the FIRST SCHOOL must claim that it was in Artaxerxes' 7th year, 458 OR 457 B.C.E.
Opinion A: In Nisan (Spring), when Ezra left Babylon (Ezra 7:9).
Opinion B: In Tishrei (Autumn), 6 months after Ezra left Babylon:
They travelled for 4 months, arriving in Jerusalem on the 1st of Av (Ezra 7:9). Ezra then allegedly waited another 2 months before giving the decree to the Persian governors! Why? Only because this calculation must begin in Tishrei.

Ezra left Babylon with the decree on the 1st day of the 1st month, in the 7th year of the king (Ezra 7:8, 9, 13). Hence, it was signed, issued & took effect earlier. Scripture supports it:
1. The organizers planned and prepared for the trip before departure.
2. The Jews who volunteered for the journey were ready before departure (Ezra 7:7).
3. The silver and gold that the king "freely offered to the G-d of Israel" were prepared before departure (Ezra 7:15).
4. The silver, gold, and free-will offerings donated by the general population were collected, and prepared before departure (Ezra 7:16).

This scenario has a precedent in Scripture. Ahashverosh, a previous king, issued decrees concerning his Jewish subjects. From its narrative, we learn that Babylon had an extensive communication network:
Esther 8:14 "So the posts that rode on swift horses that were used in the king's service went out being hastened, and pressed on by the king's command."
Esther 9:30 "And he sent letters to all the Jews, to 127 provinces of the kingdom of Ahashverosh,"
According to protocol, horsemen delivered Artaxerxes' decree (t'aim Ezra 7:13) to his governors in Jerusalem. And no one was surprised, and caught unprepared when the group which included 1,496 males arrived (Ezra 8:3-14).

The natural sequel of events described in Ezra 8:32-36 confirms it:
Upon arrival, Ezra and the group rested for three days. On the fourth day, they brought the silver and gold to the Temple, and gave the king's commissions (dath) to his satraps and governors of the Trans-River.

**********

Chronology of Jesus Wikipedia. org:
Jesus was born between 6 and 4 B.C.E.        He died between 30 and 36 C.E.
Jesus was baptized / ministry began between 26 and 29 C.E.        His ministry lasted 1 to 3 years.
The crucifixion occurred on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday.        The 14th or 15th of Nisan.
Nothing in the Christian calculations can historically be verified!

Opinion B:
Tishrei 458 or 457 B.C.E. - Decree took effect.
-     483 years (69 weeks x 7 years).
--------------------
Tishrei 26 or 27 C.E. - Jesus was baptized.
+     3.5 year ministry.
--------------------
Nisan 30 or 31 C.E. - Jesus was crucified.
+     3.5 years.

From B.C.E. to C.E. 1 year is added.

Opinion A: Nisan 458 B.C.E. - 483 years = Nisan 26 C.E. + 3.5 years = Tishrei 29 C.E. + 3.5 years. OR
Opinion A: Nisan 457 B.C.E. - 483 years = Nisan 27 C.E. + 3.5 years = Tishrei 30 C.E. + 3.5 years.

Opinions A are disqualified because they have the crucifixion in Tishrei. All the gospels agree it was in Nisan.

They hide this blunder by omitting the months and seasons. And by inserting double years.
This one fails on both counts: 457 B.C.E. - 483 years = 26 / 27 C.E. + 3.5 years = 30 C.E. + 3.5 years.

A 3.5 year ministry for Jesus is too long. Matthew 26-27, Mark 14-15, and Luke 22-23 in detailing Jesus' public life after his baptism refer to only one Passover. And it was on the 1st day of this Passover, the 15th of Nisan that Jesus was crucified. Thus, his ministry lasted a maximum 1 year.
John 19 has Jesus dying on the 14th of Nisan, the day before Passover. He also has two earlier Passovers (John 2 and 6). So, according to him, Jesus' ministry lasted a maximum 3 years.

This School ignores the war against Jerusalem which ended in 70 C.E. (9:26). Their 490 years continued only until 33 or 34 C.E. OR
After the crucifixion, a time gap was put in place until their final 3.5 years resurfaced in 66 - 70 C.E.
Both solutions are short 5 weeks of years. An automatic disqualification.

Luke 3:1-2 has John the Baptist beginning his ministry "In the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar." But scholars disagree from which year the count started:
a. Was it when Tiberius began to co-reign with the emperor Augustus? That was in 11, 12 or 13 C.E. OR
b. Was it when Tiberius became the sole emperor in 14 C.E.?
Thus, John could have started his ministry in 26, 27, 28 or 29 C.E.

This uncertainity enables each School to choose "the" year that John baptized Jesus. It initiated Jesus' ministry, a pivotal point in their timeline.
Their 458 B.C.E. decree have 26 and 29 C.E.
Their 457 B.C.E. decree has 27 C.E.
Their 445 and 444 B.C.E. decrees have 28 and 29 C.E. respectively.

They assume that Jesus was baptized during the first year of John's ministry. This is also not known.

**********

The Jews were a subject people. The groups who left Babylon had written permissions from the kings. Upon their arrival in Jerusalem, copies were given to the Persian rulers (Ezra 8:36, Nehemiah 2:9).
Any sign of rebellion was suppressed, as when Artaxerxes stopped the rebuilding (Ezra 4:21-24). In Nehemiah 6:6-7 Jews were accused of plotting to revolt. "Now it shall be reported to the king."
Therefore, "to restore" does not mean that Artaxerxes' decree made Jerusalem politically independent and self-ruling. Nor was Ezra authorized "to build Jerusalem" (Daniel 9:25).

ARTAXERXES' 20th YEAR DECREE......NEHEMIAH 2

Cyrus' decree took effect in 538 B.C.E. However, the 483 year intervening period (69 weeks x 7 years) ended before Jesus was born. Therefore, the SECOND SCHOOL chose Artaxerxes' 20th year decree in 445 OR 444 B.C.E. It empowered Nehemiah, via official letters (iggerot) to build the city (Nehemiah 2:5, 9).
They see a connection between the wall in Nehemiah 2:8, and the "wall" in Daniel 9:25. The Hebrew "chomat" in Nehemiah does mean wall. But "charuts" in Daniel means to cut in or dig. It is most frequently translated as moat.

They must begin their calculations on Nisan 1st. But the decree is dated:
Nehemiah 2:1 "IN THE MONTH OF NISAN, IN THE 20th YEAR OF KING ARTAXERXES,"

a. The day is missing. Our Oral Tradition does not have it. Ancient histories also don't. So this School just assumes its Nisan 1st. OR They say according to Jewish custom its thought to be Nisan 1st, their New Year Day. That's Tishrei 1st.
An unknown start day invalidates their day to day calculations!

b. Their other huddle was that 483 years from 445/444 B.C.E. ended at 39/40 C.E.
Since that was after Jesus died, this School devised a stratagem to end 7 years earlier.
They invented a 360 day Prophetic & Biblical calendar year. (see Appendix)
483 years x 360 days = 173,880 days.
Their intervening period was now calculated in days not years.
*****
The 483 years were then reduced by dividing 173,880 days with numbers larger than the 360 day multiplier:
173,880 days divided by 365 days per year = 476.38 years (Robert Anderson).
173,880 days divided by 365.24219879 days per year = 476.07 years (Harold Hoehner).
Their intervening period was again calculated in years.
*****
Finally, their start & end dates (Nisan 1st & 10th) were changed to Julian calendar dates:
March 14, 445 B.C.E. --- [+ 476.38 years] --- April 6, 32 C.E. --- (Anderson).
March 5, 444 B.C.E. ---- [+ 476.07 years] --- March 30, 33 C.E. --- (Hoehner).

1. Scripture has an intervening period of 483 years, not 476.38 or 476.07.
2. This decree supposedly took effect on Nisan 1st. Since the prophecy consisted of full years (483 & 490), their end day is Nisan 1st. Not Nisan 10th, nor its English equivalent.
3. Their dates are from the Julian calendar, but its 365.25 days per year were not employed. Because this School broke the calendar's rules their calculations are null & void!
4. The Julian calendar B.C.E. computer program has the intervening period for Anderson at 173,883 days. And for Hoehner at 173,885 days. Their "day to day" calculations are 3 & 5 days early.

c. Nevertheless, they still maintain that the 173,880th day ended the 69th week (Daniel 9:26). It was allegedly on Palm Sunday, Nisan 10th, the day Jesus entered Jerusalem.
This deception pushed the events which followed in 9:26 [including the crucifixion] into a non-existent time gap. It lies between the 69th and still future 70th week (9:27). Therefore, Jesus' death now outside of the 490 years, can not be the stimulus "to finish the transgression, to make an end of sins" etc (9:24).
The singular verb "nechtack" (decreed) after the plural subject "shavuim" (weeks) in 9:24 shows that the latter is a continuous, and uninterrupted unit of time. It is grammatically wrong to divide it with a gap.

d. The year during which Palm Sunday, and the crucifixion occurred is not known. Jesus was only one of thousands of people who suffered the penalty of crucifixion. His crime was that he protrayed himself to be "The King of the Jews." It was treason against the Roman emperor.
Josephus, 1st century historian, described how common crucifixion was: "So great was their multitude that space could not be found for the crosses, nor crosses for their bodies" (Wars, Book 5, Chapter 11, Section 1).

APPENDIX

That the destruction of the First Temple occurred in the year 3338 from Year One is derived from the Hebrew Bible. The year in which the following individuals died brings us to 2448, the year of the Exodus from Egypt:
Adam - 930,  Methusaleh - 1656,  Shem - 2158,  Jacob - 2255,  Amram - 2392.
Moses was born in 2368 + 80, his age at the Exodus = 2448 (Genesis and Exodus).

The First Temple construction began 480 years thereafter = 2928 (1 Kings 6:1).
King Solomon continued to reign for another 36 years = 2964 (1 Kings 11:42).
To this we add 374, the total of years that the remaining kings reigned = 3338 (2 Chronicles 12:13 - 36:11).

**********

The flood waters rose for exactly 5 months. The 17th day of the 2nd month to the 17th day of the 7th month, 150 days (Genesis 7:11, 24; 8:4). The SECOND SCHOOL elaborates upon these details, and hypothesizes that the entire Biblical period had a 30 day month (5 x 30 = 150), and a 360 day year (12 x 30 = 360). They quote New Testament verses written 500 years after our Bible closed as "proof". This is their 69 x 7 x 360 days = 173,880 days calculation.

But, until these questions are correctly answered, everything is guesswork:
a. How many months were in their year?
b. How many days were in each of the 5 months?
c. How many days were in each of the other months?
d. Were days added at the end of the year?
e. Often in the Hebrew Bible, numbers are not exact. They are rounded off to the nearest 10th or 100th (Numbers 1:21-43). Were the 150 days another rounded off number?

Nevertheless, our calendar during the Biblical period until today, was given to us in Egypt, 800 years after the flood:
Exodus 12:2 "This month shall be to you the beginning of months. It shall be the 1st month of the year to you."

Each month has 29 or 30 days. Thus, the Jewish year has 354 days. A month is added 7 times during every 19 years. Until the 3rd century C.E., the next month began when the New Moon was seen:
2 Kings 4:23 "It is not a New Moon nor Sabbath."
Isaiah 66:23 "From one New Moon to another,"

**********

Talmud Sanhedrin 97b "Blasted be the bones of those who calculate the end. For people will say: since the awaited time has arrived, and yet the Messiah has not come, he will never come."
Some say that Jews are cursed if we even read Daniel 9. This interpretation is problematic:
1. It does not mention Jews.
2. It does not mention Daniel 9.
3. Nothing in our Rabbinical works forbid Daniel 9.
4. Our greatest commentators wrote extensively on Daniel 9.
5. After the Talmud closed, several leading Rabbis calculated the Messiah's arrival. They included: R' Saadiah Gaon, Rambam, Ramban, Rashi and R' Bachya.
6. The Talmud included Daniel 9 in its religious discourses:
Talmud Nazir 32b: While the destruction of the Second Temple was being discussed:
Abaye said: "And they didn't know when it would happen? Is it not written: 70 weeks are decreed upon your people and upon your holy city."